Highlights from:
Hobbes' Internet Timeline v5.6
Robert H'obbes' Zakon

An Internet timeline highlighting some of the key events and technologies
which helped shape the Internet as we know it today.


Hobbes' Internet Timeline Copyright (c)1993-2002 by Robert H Zakon. Permission is granted for use of this document in whole or in part for non-commercial purposes as long as this Copyright notice and a link to this document, at the archive listed at the end, is included. A copy of the material the Timeline appears in is requested. For commercial uses, please contact the author first. Links to this document are welcome after e-mailing the author with the document URL where the link will appear. As the Timeline is frequently updated, copies to other locations on the Internet are not permitted.

Last updated: 09/25/2003


USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the following year, within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military


ARPA sponsors study on "cooperative network of time-sharing computers"

ARPANET design discussions.

ARPANET commissioned by DoD
for research into networking.


ARPANET grows to 15 nodes (23 hosts): UCLA, SRI, UCSB, Univ of Utah, BBN, MIT, RAND, SDC, Harvard, Lincoln Lab, Stanford, UIU(C), CWRU, CMU, NASA/ Ames

First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) via NORSAR (Norway)
Bob Metcalfe's Harvard PhD Thesis outlines idea for Ethernet. The concept was tested on Xerox PARC's Alto computers, and the first Ethernet network called the Alto Aloha System (May)

Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection" which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Program (TCP).
BBN opens Telenet, the first public packet data service (a commercial version of ARPANET).

First ARPANET mailing list, MsgGroup, is created by Steve Walker.
John Vittal develops MSG, the first all-inclusive email program providing replying, forwarding, and filing capabilities.

Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom sends out an email on 26 March from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern

TCP split into TCP and IP (March)

Meeting between Univ of Wisconsin, DARPA, National Science Foundation (NSF), and computer scientists from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department research computer network (organized by Larry Landweber).
USENET established using UUCP between Duke and UNC by Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis, and Steve Bellovin.
First MUD, MUD1, by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw at U of Essex


ARPANET grinds to a complete halt on 27 October because of an accidentally-propagated status-message virus
First C/30-based IMP at BBN

DCA and ARPA establish the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET.
This leads to one of the first definitions of an "internet" as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and "Internet" as connected TCP/IP internets.
DoD declares TCP/IP suite to be standard for DoD

Name server developed at Univ of Wisconsin, no longer requiring users to know the exact path to other systems
ARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET; the latter became integrated with the Defense Data Network created the previous year. 68 of the 113 existing nodes went to MILNET
Desktop workstations come into being, many with Berkeley UNIX (4.2 BSD) which includes IP networking software
Networking needs switch from having a single, large time sharing computer connected to the Internet at each site, to instead connecting entire local networks
Internet Activities Board (IAB) established.

Domain Name System (DNS) introduced
Number of hosts breaks 1,000
Neuromancer by William Gibson (phrase "cyberspace")

Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at USC is given responsibility for DNS root management by DCA, and SRI for DNS NIC registrations
Symbolics.com is assigned on 15 March to become the first registered domain. Other firsts: cmu.edu, purdue.edu, rice.edu, berkeley.edu, ucla.edu, rutgers.edu, bbn.com; mit.edu; think.com; css.gov; mitre.org, .uk

created, replacing ARAPNET (backbone speed of 56Kbps)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)
comes into existence under the IAB. The first Freenet (Cleveland) comes on-line 16 July.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.

Number of hosts breaks 10,000

2 November - Internet worm burrows through the Net, affecting ~6,000 of the 60,000 hosts on the Internet
CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) formed by DARPA in response to the needs exhibited during the Morris worm incident. The worm is the only advisory issued this year.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) established.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed by Jarkko Oikarinen.

Number of hosts breaks 100,000
RIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) formed (by European service providers) to ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to allow the operation of the pan-European IP Network.
First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the Internet: MCI Mail through the Corporation for the Cuckoo's Egg by Clifford Stoll tells the real-life tale of a German cracker group who infiltrated numerous US facilities


ARPANET ceases to exist
Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is founded by Mitch Kapor
Archie (file search) released by Peter Deutsch, Alan Emtage, and Bill Heelan at McGill
The World comes on-line (world.std.com), becoming the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access

Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS), invented by Brewster Kahle, released by Thinking Machines Corporation
Gopher (organizes and displays files on Internet) released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the Univ of Minnesota
World-Wide Web (WWW) released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee developer
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) released by Philip Zimmerman

Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered (January)
IAB reconstituted as the Internet Architecture Board and becomes part of the Internet Society
Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000
First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November)
Veronica, a gopherspace search tool, is released by Univ of Nevada
World Bank comes on-line
The term "surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly
Zen and the Art of the Internet is published by Brendan Kehoe

InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services: directory and database services (AT&T), registration services (Network Solutions Inc.), information services (General Atomics/CERFnet)
US White House comes on-line (http://www.whitehouse.gov/):
Worms of a new kind find their way around the Net - WWW Worms (W4), joined by Spiders, Wanderers, Crawlers, and Snakes ...
Internet Talk Radio begins broadcasting
United Nations (UN) comes on-line
Businesses and media begin taking notice of the Internet
Mosaic takes the Internet by storm; WWW proliferates at a 341,634% annual growth rate of service traffic. Gopher's growth is 997%.

ARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary
Communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet (Lexington and Cambridge, Mass., USA)
US Senate and House provide information servers
Shopping malls arrive on the Internet
First cyberstation, RT-FM, broadcasts from Interop in Las Vegas
Arizona law firm of Canter & Siegel "spams" the Internet with email advertising green card lottery services; Net citizens flame back
NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month
WWW edges out telnet to become 2nd most popular service on the Net (behind ftp-data) based on % of packets and bytes traffic distribution on NSFNET
First Virtual, the first cyberbank, open up for business
Radio stations start rockin' (rebroadcasting) round the clock on the Net: WXYC at Univ of NC, KJHK at Univ of KS-Lawrence, KUGS at Western WA Univ
The first banner ads appear on hotwired.com in October. They were for Zima (a beverage) and AT&T
After noticing that many network software vendors used domain.com in their documentation examples, Bill Woodcock and Jon Postel register the domain. Sure enough, after looking at the domain access logs, it was evident that many users were using the example domain in configuring their applications.
Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, uk, gov, de, ca, mil, au, org, net

NSFNET reverts back to a research network. Main US backbone traffic now routed through interconnected network providers
Sun launches JAVA on May 23
RealAudio, an audio streaming technology, lets the Net hear in near real-time
WWW surpasses ftp-data in March as the service with greatest traffic on NSFNet based on packet count, and in April based on byte count
Traditional online dial-up systems (CompuServe, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access
A number of Net related companies go public, with Netscape leading the pack with the 3rd largest ever NASDAQ IPO share value (9 August)
Registration of domain names is no longer free. Beginning 14 September, a $50 annual fee has been imposed, which up until now was subsidized by NSF. NSF continues to pay for .edu registration, and on an interim basis for .gov
The first official Internet wiretap was successful in helping the Secret Service and Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) apprehend three individuals who were illegally manufacturing and selling cell phone cloning equipment and electronic devices
Operation Home Front connects, for the first time, soldiers in the field with their families back home via the Internet.
Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, net, gov, mil, org, de, uk, ca, au
Technologies of the Year: WWW, Search engines
Emerging Technologies: Mobile code (JAVA, JAVAscript), Virtual environments (VRML), Collaborative tools
Hacks of the Year: The Spot (Jun 12), Hackers Movie Page (12 Aug)

Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
The controversial US Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes law in the US in order to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the Net. A few months later a three-judge panel imposes an injunction against its enforcement. Supreme Court unanimously rules most of it unconstitutional in 1997.
9,272 organizations find themselves unlisted after the InterNIC drops their name service as a result of not having paid their domain name fee
Various ISPs suffer extended service outages, bringing into question whether they will be able to handle the growing number of users. AOL (19 hours), Netcom (13 hours), AT&T WorldNet (28 hours - email only)
Domain name tv.com sold to CNET for US$15,000
New York's Public Access Networks Corp (PANIX) is shut down after repeated SYN attacks by a cracker using methods outlined in a hacker magazine (2600)
A malicious cancelbot is released on USENET wiping out more than 25,000 messages
The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.
Restrictions on Internet use around the world: China: requires users and ISPs to register with the police, Germany: cuts off access to some newsgroups carried on CompuServe, Saudi Arabia: confines Internet access to universities and hospitals, Singapore: requires political and religious content providers to register with the state, New Zealand: classifies computer disks as "publications" that can be censored and seized source: Human Rights Watch
Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, net, uk, de, jp, us, mil, ca, au
Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Justice (17 Aug), CIA (19 Sep), Air Force (29 Dec), UK Labour Party (6 Dec), NASA DDCSOL - USAFE - US Air Force (30 Dec)
Technologies of the Year: Search engines, JAVA, Internet Phone
Emerging Technologies: Virtual environments (VRML), Collaborative tools, Internet appliance (Network Computer)

71,618 mailing lists registered at Liszt, a mailing list directory
The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is established to handle administration and registration of IP numbers to the geographical areas currently handled by Network Solutions (InterNIC), starting March 1998.
CA*net II launched in June to provide Canada's next generation Internet using ATM/SONET
In protest of the DNS monopoly, AlterNIC's owner, Eugene Kashpureff, hacks DNS so users going to www.internic.net end up at www.alternic.net
Domain name business.com sold for US$150,000
Early in the morning of 17 July, human error at Network Solutions causes the DNS table for .com and .net domains to become corrupted, making millions of systems unreachable.
101,803 Name Servers in whois database
Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, edu, net, jp, uk, de, us, au, ca, mil
Hacks of the Year: Indonesian Govt (19 Jan, 10 Feb, 24 Apr, 30 Jun, 22 Nov), NASA (5 Mar), UK Conservative Party (27 Apr), Spice Girls (14 Nov)
Technologies of the Year: Push, Multicasting
Emerging Technologies: Push

Hobbes' Internet Timeline is released as RFC 2235 & FYI 32
Web size estimates range between 275 (Digital) and 320 (NEC) million pages for 1Q
Companies flock to the Turkmenistan NIC in order to register their name under the .tm domain, the English abbreviation for trademark
Network Solutions registers its 2 millionth domain on 4 May
Electronic postal stamps become a reality, with the US Postal Service allowing stamps to be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web.
Compaq pays US$3.3million for altavista.com
CDA II and a ban on Net taxes are signed into US law (21 October)
ABCNews.com accidentally posts test US election returns one day early (2 November)
US DoC enters into an agreement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers (ICANN) to establish a process for transitioning DNS from US Government management to industry (25 November)
Chinese government puts Lin Hai on trial for "inciting the overthrow of state power" for providing 30,000 email addresses to a US Internet magazine (December) [ He is later sentenced to two years in jail ]
Open source software comes of age
Bandwidth Generators: Winter Olympics (Feb), World Cup (Jun-Jul), Starr Report (11 Sep), Glenn space launch
Top 10 Domains by Host #: com, net, edu, mil, jp, us, uk ,de, ca, au
Hacks of the Year: US Dept of Commerce (20 Feb), New York Times (13 Sep), China Society for Human Rights Studies (26 Oct), UNICEF (7 Jan)
Technologies of the Year: E-Commerce, E-Auctions, Portals
Emerging Technologies: E-Trade, XML, Intrusion Detection

First Internet Bank of Indiana, the first full-service bank available only on the Net, opens for business on 22 February
IBM becomes the first Corporate partner to be approved for Internet2 access
A forged Web page made to look like a Bloomberg financial news story raised shares of a small technology company by 31% on 7 April.
ICANN announces the five testbed registrars for the competitive Shared Registry System on 21 April: AOL, CORE, France Telecom/Oléane, Melbourne IT, Register.com. Additional post-testbed registrars are added for a total of 98 by year's end. The testbed, originally scheduled to last until 24 June, is extended until 10 September, and then 30 November. The first registrar to come online is Register.com on 7 June
First large-scale Cyberwar takes place simultaneously with the war in Serbia/Kosovo
Abilene, the Internet2 network, reaches across the Atlantic
The Web becomes the focal point of British politics as a list of MI6 agents is released on a UK Web site. Though forced to remove the list from the site, it was too late as the list had already been replicated across the Net. (15 May)
Activists Net-wide target the world's financial centers on 18 June, timed to coincide with the G8 Summit. Little actual impact is reported.
ISOC approves the formation of the Internet Societal Task Force (ISTF). Vint Cerf serves as first chair
Free computers are all the rage (as long as you sign a long term contract for Net service)
vBNS  (very high-speed Backbone Network Service) reaches 101 connections
business.com is sold for US$7.5million (it was purchased in 1997 for US$150,000 (30 Nov)
Hacks of the Year: Star Wars (8 Jan), .tp (Jan), USIA (23 Jan), E-Bay (13 Mar), US Senate (27 May), NSI (2 Jul), Paraguay Gov't (20 Jul), AntiOnline (5 Aug), Microsoft (26 Oct), UK Railtrack (31 Dec)
Technologies of the Year: E-Trade, Online Banking, MP3
Emerging Technologies: Net-Cell Phones, Thin Computing, Embedded Computing
Viruses of the Year: Melissa (March), ExploreZip (June)


The US timekeeper (USNO) and a few other time services around the world report the new year as 19100 on 1 Jan
A massive denial of service attack is launched against major web sites, including Yahoo, Amazon, and eBay in early February
Web size estimates by NEC-RI and Inktomi surpass 1 billion indexable pages
Internet2 backbone network deploys IPv6 (16 May)
Various domain name hijackings took place in late May and early June, including internet.com, bali.com, and web.net
ICANN selects new TLDs: .aero, .biz, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .pro (16 Nov)
The European Commission contracts with a consortium of 30 national research networks for the development of Géant, Hacks of the Year: RSA Security (Feb), Apache (May), Western Union (Sep), Microsoft (Oct)
Technologies of the Year: ASP, Napster
Emerging Technologies: Wireless devices, IPv6
Viruses of the Year: Love Letter (May)
Lawsuits of the Year: Napster, DeCSS

The first live distributed musical -- The Technophobe & The Madman -- over Internet2 networks debuts on 20 Feb
Unicode character set (5 Apr) opening up most of the world's languages
Radio stations broadcasting over the Web go silent over royalty disputes (10 Apr)
European Council finalizes an international cybercrime treaty on 22 June and adopts it on 9 November. This is the first treaty addressing criminal offenses committed over the Internet.
.biz and .info are added to the root server on 27 June with registrations beginning in July. .biz domain go live on 7 Nov.
Afghanistan's Taliban bans Internet access country-wide, including from Government offices, in an attempt to control content (13 Jul)
Code Red worm and Sircam virus infiltrate thousands of web servers and email accounts, respectively, causing a spike in Internet bandwidth usage and security breaches (July)
A fire in a train tunnel running through Baltimore, Maryland seriously damages various fiber-optic cable bundles used by backbone providers, disrupting Internet traffic in the Mid-Atlantic states and creating a ripple effect across the US
GEANT, the pan-European Gigabit Research and Education Network, becomes operational (23 Oct), replacing the TEN-155 network which was closed down (30 Nov)
.museum begins resolving (Nov)
First uncompressed real-time gigabit HDTV transmission across a wide-area IP network takes place on Internet2 (12 Nov).
.us domain operational responsibility assumed by NeuStar (20 Nov)
Viruses of the Year: Code Red (Jul), Nimda (Sep), SirCam (Jul), BadTrans (Apr, Nov)
Emerging Technologies: Grid Computing, P2P
Hundreds of Internet radio stations observe a Day of Silence in protest of proposed song royalty rate increases (1 May)
Abilene (Internet2) backbone deploys native IPv6 (5 Aug)
Internet2 now has 200 university, 60 corporate, and 40 affiliate members (2 Sep)
A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack struck the 13 DNS root servers knocking out all but 5 (21-23 Oct). Amidst national security concerns, VeriSign hastens a planned relocation of one of its two DNS root servers
A new US law creates a kids-safe "dot-kids" domain (kids.us) to be implemented in 2003 (3 Dec)
The FBI teams up with Terray Lycos to disseminate virtual wanted posts across the Web portal's properties (11 Dec)

US ISP Association (USISPA) is created from the former CIX (11 Jan)
.name begins resolving (15 Jan)
.coop registrations begin (30 Jan)
.aero registrations begin (18 Mar)
Public Interest Registry (PIR) takes over as .org registry operator on 1 Jan. Transition is completed on 27 Jan. By giving up .org, VeriSign is able to retain control over .com domains
A new US law creates a kids-safe "dot-kids" domain (kids.us) to be implemented in 2003 (3 Dec)
The FBI teams up with Terray Lycos to disseminate virtual wanted posts across the Web portal's properties (11 Dec)
RFC 3251: Electricity over IP

Public Interest Registry (PIR) takes over as .org registry operator on 1 Jan. Transition is completed on 27 Jan. By giving up .org, VeriSign is able to retain control over .com domains
The first official Swiss online election takes place in Anières (7 Jan)
The SQL Slammer worm causes one of the largest and fastest spreading DDoS attacks ever. Taking roughly 10 minutes to spread worldwide, the worm took down 5 of the 13 DNS root servers along with tens of thousands of other servers, and impacted a multitude of systems ranging from (bank) ATM systems to air traffic control to emergency (911) systems (25 Jan)
RFC 3514: The Security Flag in the IPv4 Header (The Evil Bit)

Hobbes' Internet Timeline FAQ

1. How do I get Hobbes' Internet Timeline?
The Timeline is archived at http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ . Should you only have email access, you can learn how to request this document and access the rest of the Internet by sending an email to one of the following addresses.

mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu (Americas) with the following line in the body of the message:
send usenet/news.answers/internet-services/access-via-email
mailbase@mailbase.ac.uk (elsewhere) with the following line in the body of the message:
send lis-iis e-access-inet.txt

2. Is the Timeline available in other languages or editions?

Chinese (Big5) by Tony Mao
Chinese (GB) by Guo Li
French by Didier Mainguy
German by Michael Kaul
Italian by Ivo Aceto
Japanese by Katsunori Tanaka (RFC/FYI translation)
Persian (PDF) by Rahi Moosavi
Portuguese by Simone Villas Boas
Spanish by Pablo Ibarrolaza & Monica Piazza

If you are interested in translating to another language or format, email me first

3. Can I re-print the Timeline or use parts of it for ... ?
Drop me an email. The answer is most likely (though don't assume) 'yes' for non-profit use, and 'maybe' for for-profit; but to be sure you are not going to break any copyright laws, drop me an email and wait for a reply. Also, please note that I get a bunch of requests with improperly formatted return email addresses. If you don't hear from me in a week (typical turn around is < 1 hour), check your header and email again. BTW, don't forget to tell me who you are and your affiliation; anonymous requests will not be answered.
4. What do you do when not updating the Timeline?
For fun: travel, photography, R/C boats, developing technology prototypes ranging from robots, speech to speech translators, and an assortment of Web capabilities. Professionally: evangelize/research/develop advanced Internet, Web, e-commerce and multilingual computing technologies. Explore www.Zakon.org to learn more.
0. Peddie (Ala Viva!), CWRU (North Side), Amici usque ad aras (PHP OH-EP), Colégio Andrews (Rio), Gordonstoun (Elgin)
E-mail me if you know


Hobbes' Internet Timeline was compiled from a number of sources, with some
of the stand-outs being:

Cerf, Vinton (as told to Bernard Aboba). "How the Internet Came to Be."
This article appears in "The Online User's Encyclopedia," by Bernard Aboba.
Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Hardy, Henry. "The History of the Net." Master's Thesis, School of
Communications, Grand Valley State University.

Hardy, Ian. "The Evolution of ARPANET email." History Thesis, UC Berkeley.

Hauben, Ronda and Michael. "The Netizens and the Wonderful World of the Net."

Kulikowski, Stan II. "A Timeline of Network History." (author's email below)

Quarterman, John. "The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems
Worldwide." Bedford, MA: Digital Press. 1990

"ARPANET, the Defense Data Network, and Internet". Encyclopedia of
Communications, Volume 1. Editors: Fritz Froehlich, Allen Kent.
New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1991

Internet growth summary compiled from:
- Zone program reports maintained by Mark Lottor at:
Note: A more accurate host counting mechanism was used starting
with 1/98 count.
- Connectivity table maintained by Larry Landweber at:
- ARPAnet maps published in various sources

WWW growth summary compiled from:
- Web growth summary page by Matthew Gray of MIT:
- Netcraft at http://www.netcraft.com/survey/

USENET growth summary compiled from Quarterman and Hauben sources above,
and news.lists postings. Lots of historical USENET postings also provided
by Tom Fitzgerald (fitz@wang.com).

CERT growth summary compiled from CERT reports at ftp://ftp.cert.org/
CERT stats are also now being made available by CERT at

Many of the URLs provided by Arnaud Dufour (arnaud.dufour@hec.unil.ch)

Country-specific Internet Histories:
- Australia - "A Brief History of the Internet in Australia" by Roger Clarke
- Australia - "It Started with a Ping" by Jennie Sinclair
- Brazil - "Linha to Tempo da Internet no Brasil" by Érico Guizzo
- UK - "Early Experiences with the ARPANET and INTERNET in the UK" by Peter Kirstein

Additional books of interest:
- "Weaving the Web : The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web
by its Inventor"
by Tim Berners-Lee
- "Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet"
by Katie Hafner & Matthew Lyon
- "Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet"
by Stephen Segaller
- "Architects of the Web: 1,000 Days That Built the Future of Business"
by Robert H. Reid
- "Netizens: On the History and Impact of Usenet and the Internet"
by Michael Hauben et al
- "Exploring the Internet: A Technical Travelogue"
by Carl Malamud

Early works of interest:
- "As We May Think" by Vannevar Bush, 1945
- "Man-Computer Symbiosis" by J.C.R. Licklider, 1960

Contributors to Hobbes' Internet Timeline have their initials next to the
contributed items in the form (:zzz:) and are:

ad1 - Arnaud Dufour (arnaud.dufour@hec.unil.ch)
amk - Alex McKenzie (mckenzie@bbn.com)
bb1 - Billy Brackenridge (billyb@microsoft.com)
clg - C. Lee Giles (giles@research.nj.nec.com)
dk1 - Daniel Karrenberg (Daniel.Karrenberg@ripe.net)
ec1 - Eric Carroll (eric@enfm.utcc.utoronto.ca)
esr - Eric S. Raymond (esr@locke.ccil.org)
feg - Farrell E. Gerbode (farrell@is.rice.edu)
gb1 - Gordon Bell (GBell@microsoft.com)
gck - Gary C. Kessler (kumquat@hill.com)
glg - Gail L. Grant (grant@glgc.com)
gmc - Grant McCall (g.mccall@unsw.edu.au)
gst - Graham Thomas (G.S.Thomas@uel.ac.uk)
irh - Ian R Hardy (hardy@uclink2.berkeley.edu)
jap - Jean Armour Polly (mom@netmom.com)
jg1 - Jim Gaynor (gaynor@niherlas.com)
kf1 - Ken Fockler (fockler@hq.canet.ca)
kf2 - Kinming Fung (kinming@cuhk.edu.hk)
lb1 - Larry Backman (backman@ultranet.com)
lhl - Larry H. Landweber (lhl@cs.wisc.edu)
mpc - Mellisa P. Chase (pc@mitre.org)
pb1 - Paul Burchard (burchard@cs.princeton.edu)
pds - Peter da Silva (peter@baileynm.com)
ph1 - Peter Hoffman (hoffman@ece.nps.navy.mil)
rab - Roger A. Bielefeld (rab@hal.cwru.edu)
rm1 - Rahi Moosavi (r.moosavi@asrecomputer.com)
sc1 - Susan Calcari (susanc@is.internic.net)
sk2 - Stan Kulikowski (stankuli@uwf.bitnet) - see sources section
sw1 - Stephen Wolff (swolff@cisco.com)
tb1 - Tim Burress (tim@twics.com)
tp1 - Tim Pozar (pozar@kumr.lns.com)
vgc - Vinton Cerf (vcerf@isoc.org) - see sources section
wz1 - W. Zorn (zorn@ira.uka.de)
zby - Zenel Batagelj (zenel.batagelj@uni-lj.si)

:-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) ;-) Help the Author (-: (-: (-: (-: (-: (-: (-:

Thank you to the thousands of Net folks who contributed information to help
the author's genealogical search, yielding 45 new Zakon's from around the world!

Archive-name: Hobbes' Internet Timeline
Version: 5.6
Archive-location: http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/
Last-updated: 1 April 2002
Maintainer: Robert H'obbes' Zakon, Robert@Zakon.org, www.Zakon.org
An Internet timeline highlighting some of the key events and technologies
which helped shape the Internet as we know it today.